Frequently Asked Questions about Mountain Biking

Michael Vandeman, Ph.D.

Last Updated April 11, 2024


1. What harm does mountain biking do? The vast majority of people who try to assess the harm that mountain biking does only look at the obvious: the impact on the trail and other trail users. But in fact, the greatest harm is caused by increasing the human footprint (the distance that people can travel) in wildlife habitat. This denies the wildlife the full use of their habitat during the day – and when people ride at night, all the time! E-bikes increase that footprint even more, since someone can travel much farther on an e-bike than on a regular mountain bike: 220 km = 137 miles: can you walk that far in a day? Can you even mountain bike that far in a day? That shows exactly how much an e-bike expands the human footprint.

There is only one solution: ban bicycles and other machinery (except wheelchairs) from all unpaved trails. The other greatest harm that mountain bikers do is to continually build new trails, which destroys wildlife habitat (see Mountain bikers are obsessed with building new trails (legally or illegally), because if they build it, they will automatically have access to it. Amazingly, conservation biologists apparently haven’t noticed this and have done nothing to stop it! Conservation biology is a new branch of science that was created in 1968 (see specifically to be an "activist" discipline – that would not only study extinction, but actively work to prevent it. But conservation biologists seem to have forgotten that, and lost their way. Their journals are full of jargon and are of no help to wildlife activists. Try to find an article there on the harm that is obviously done by mountain biking and trail-building! L


a. Why do people mountain bike? They say that using a bike allows them to get much farther, in the same amount of time, than they can by walking. They also maintain constant pressure on land managers, to open more and more trails to bikes. Of course, all of these trails are already open to them, if they choose to walk. They also frequently claim that closing trails to bikes "excludes" them from the parks. This could only be true if they were unable to walk. Of course, they are able to walk. There's nothing inherently wrong with bicycling instead of walking; we all like to save energy, when it's appropriate. Use of a bicycle to replace automobile use is obviously beneficial. However, by the same token, replacing hiking with mountain biking is obviously not beneficial.

b. They are interested in the quantity of nature they can see, rather than the quality of their experience. While riding a bike, especially over terrain as rough as a trail, one has to be constantly paying attention to not crashing. That makes it almost impossible to notice much else. (IMBA confirmed that in their "Rules of the Trail": "Control Your Bicycle: Inattention for even a moment could put yourself and others at risk": Or: "The rest of the lap dazzled us with stunning views of the azure waters below, although fast rocky descending and even more steep loose climbing meant you had to pay attention to the tricky trail.") By contrast, a hiker feels the ground, hears all the sounds and smells all the odors of nature and can stop instantly, if he/she finds something interesting. The brain thrives on stimulation. A biker has to travel several times as far as a hiker, to get the same stimulation as a hiker. (And, by the same token, motorcyclists have to travel several times as far as a bicyclist, and an auto user several times as far as a motorcyclist, since they are enclosed in a metal box.)

"Something I didn't know about mountain biking, at least on a trail this challenging: You cannot look up. Even for a second. To do so is to court ruin. Forget about the scenery, all that peripheral beauty gone by in a flash, the profound silence, the bliss of seclusion. Was that a bull elk up ahead or merely a juniper? Oh, how the rings of morning light smolder over that ridgeline ... Wake up! Dial it in, man! Head down! Eyes locked on the trail! Let your mind drift and you are toast." "'The high speed means it is terrible as you miss 95 per cent of what is around you, but the vast distance you get to cover more than compensates,' he said." Really? Then what is the point of mountain biking, if you miss most of what you are passing? For example, night riding:
"To me, mountain biking is the physical embodiment of the concept of mindfulness: it requires you to be in the moment, because if your attention wanders, the consequences can be severe."


Anyone who has ever watched a mountain biker video knows that they ride too fast (and must give 100% of their attention to the trail in front of their front tire, or they will crash!) to really see anything. But when riding at night, they see even less (how much is less than nothing? ;) )! So what the heck is the point of mountain biking, anyway???

a.  They are interested in thrills. Riding a bike on a trail, especially a trail containing many obstacles, or a trail one is not familiar with, is very challenging. (But if mountain biking is the high point of your week, as it seems to be for many mountain bikers, you must be leading a pretty dull life, off of the bike!) "The sensation of speed, the feeling of the wind whipping against your face as the ground turns to a blur beneath knobby tires is one of the reasons so many of us become addicted to mountain biking."


It's a behavioral addiction. An addiction is an activity that you keep doing, even though you know that it is going to harm you or others: "Jake Legge, who will attend Moopark College in the fall, said the sport is addictive. “Ever since I was little we’d do vacation trips in Mammoth and we’d bike out there,” he said. “As time went on, we did more and more biking. Before you know it, we’re racing. We got hooked. Ever since, we just can’t get off the bike.” “It’s one of those kinds of sports ... it grows on you,” Corona said, adding: “It’s very addictive. If you like it, you’re going to like it a lot.”

c.  They are interested in building mountain biking skills and competing with other mountain bikers. The thrill of racing drives people to spend more money on their bike, and ride it harder and more often. Racing, up to and including the Olympics, drives a lot of mountain biking. Of course, it is also extremely harmful to the parks and natural areas that are used for practice! It is hard to think of any other (legal) use of public lands, other than hunting, that is as harmful as mountain biking.

d.  They want to get to their destination faster (not considering that the process of getting there is a major part of the enjoyment). Once, when much younger, I was hiking along a very boring trail. The thought came to me that if I had a bike, I could get past the boring section of the trail, and to the interesting part much faster. But about 2 seconds later I realized that if I could do that, so could everyone else, and the place would be full of people and ruined. That was the end of my (2-second) mountain biking career.

e.  "We mountain bike because of the euphoric adrenaline rush, but that adrenaline rush is made all the sweeter by the pain endured on every single ride." Greg Heil

f.  Example: "What do you enjoy most about mountain biking?" "Just the experience of being out in a forest on a trail, just flowing down it and enjoying the scenery. I know it sounds cheesy, but you really become one with nature. At the same time, there's the adrenaline rush you get from downhills and runner's high from climbing. It's a lot of stuff that's hard to put into words." Steve Ray, mountain biker

g.  "Mountain biking is more than just a hobby for me; it's a way of life. The adrenaline rush of speeding down a trail, the satisfaction of conquering a tough climb, and the joy of being one with nature are feelings that I live for." Jay Beaton


The mountain biker ideal (the human ideal?) is nonstop adventure, with no restrictions! That seems to be an integral part of human nature. But the result is the total disaster that the Earth has become, from global warming, ocean acidification, ozone depletion, pollution of the entire Earth, habitat destruction, and rampant species extinction. At the very least, we should restrict bicycles to pavement!

3. What is driving the sport of mountain biking? Besides the attraction for participants, manufacturers and retailers of mountain bikes and mountain biking accessories, as well as "adventure" travel guides, make a lot of money from promoting mountain biking. Even some auto manufacturers (e.g. Subaru) promote and sponsor mountain biking, and try to use its popularity to sell more cars. The tourism industry also promotes mountain biking, among other attractions.


4. What harm does mountain biking do?

a.  Most obvious is the acceleration of erosion. Knobby tires rip into the soil, loosening it and allowing rain to wash it away. They also create V-shaped grooves that make walking difficult or even dangerous. The mechanical advantage given by the gears and ball bearings allow a mountain biker to travel several times as fast as a hiker. Given their increased weight (rider plus bike), this results in vastly increased momentum, and hence much greater horizontal (shearing) forces on the soil. (Witness the skid marks from stops, starts, and turns.) According to Newton, every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Mountain bikes were built much stronger than other bikes, so that they could withstand the greater forces they were subject to on rough trails. These same forces, therefore, are being applied to the trails! To give a definite number, the winner of a 20-mile race here in Briones Regional Park averaged 13 MPH (the speed limit is 15 MPH -- where were the park rangers?). Mountain bikers themselves use the expression "shred trails" for mountain biking. That is not an accident. That is exactly what knobby tires are designed to do! ( "Northwest shredder Billy Lewis is now riding for Diamondback. ... Filmed at Duthie Hill and as well as a couple secret spots.")

b.  Mountain bikers love to race on singletrack (narrow) trails. But it makes absolutely no sense to "race" on a singletrack trail, where, by definition, everyone must travel single-file, and you can't pass anyone (or risk widening the trail)!

c.  A hiker must be very careful not to accidentally step on small animals and plants on the trail. For a mountain biker, it is almost impossible to avoid killing countless animals and plants on and under the trail. They have to pay attention to controlling the bike, and can't afford to look carefully at what is on the trail, especially when travelling fast. And even if they happen to see, for example, a snake, it is hard for them to stop in time to avoid killing it (e.g. see A hiker, when crossing a creek, will try to avoid getting wet, by crossing on stepping stones or logs. Mountain bikers, on the other hand, simply ride right through the creek bed, crushing any animals or plants that happen to be there. Mountain biking magazines are full of photos of mountain bikers throwing up spray, as they barrel through creeks. Not only do bikes destroy animals and plants as they ride across streams, they ride through streams stirring up sediment. The sediment in the water interferes with the oxygen uptake by aquatic life, for example, killing fish- and frog eggs. Young fish, insects, amphibians, and aquatic microorganisms are extremely sensitive to sediment in water.

d.  Bikes also allow people to travel several times as far as a hiker. This translates into several times the impacts, both on the trail and on the wildlife (to say nothing of the other trail users). Existing parklands are already inadequate to protect the wildlife that live there. When they are crisscrossed by mountain bikers and legal or illegal trails, their habitat becomes even more inadequate. Mountain bikers frequently advertise rides of 20-50 miles or more. Have you ever tried to walk that far in a day? In other words, allowing bikes in a park greatly increases human presence (the human “footprint”) in that park and drives wildlife further from the resources that they need to survive, including water, food, and mates. Given the current Sixth Extinction crisis, the human footprint needs to be reduced, not increased!

e.  Due to their width and speed, bikes can't safely pass each other on narrow trails. Therefore, policies that permit mountain biking also result in more habitat destruction, as trails are widened by bikers (or by hikers and equestrians jumping out of their way).

f.  Knobby mountain bike tires are ideal for carrying mud, and consequently exotic plants, fungi, and other organisms from place to place, resulting in the spread of exotic invasive species, such as weeds and Sudden Oak Death.

g.  Mountain biking is driving the very young and old off of the trails and hence out of the parks. Even able-bodied hikers and equestrians fear for their safety, and don’t enjoy sharing the trails with bikes. (The mountain bikers claim that they are simply being selfish and "unwilling to share", but actually they have no problem sharing trails with mountain bikers; it is only their bikes that are a problem!)

h.  "I feel bad for the Hikers..."
Some MTBers wrote on this forum thread:

I was at Princess Park a couple of days ago, kids were playing capture the flag. They had finished and were walking up the paved road just past the playground when a biker went zipping past us at mach one speeds. There was 18 kids ranging from 6-14 yrs of age. A couple of mom yelled at him to slow down, which he didn't. I was quite embarrassed to be a mtber! All he had to do was slow down for a whole 10secs


Weekends and weekdays on the Shore are like night and day. Dunno where these guys come from on the weekends
but the non friendly don't give a shit attitude has really been noticeable over the last couple years. Buddy comes hauling down St Mary's where it crosses Boundary, proceeds to air off the roller where it's a blind corner into a group of hikers, no one was hurt luckily... Guy was unapologetic, took off, so pathetic. Welcome to the weekends on Fromme. Find the Gen x er crowd is really friendly, the younger guys if riding solo bury their face in their phone when you pass on climbs or look away. Must be horrible to have all that social anxiety.”

i.  Mountain bikes, which are obviously built to go anywhere, teach children and anyone else who sees them that the rough treatment of nature is acceptable. This undoubtedly has a negative effect on people's treatment of nature.

j.  In order to mitigate bike-caused erosion, park managers have been resorting to extreme measures -- even in some cases putting a plastic matrix or other exotic material under the trail (e.g. in Pleasanton Ridge Regional Preserve, near Pleasanton, California)! It's hard to imagine that this will have a beneficial effect on the park and its wildlife….

k.  Allowing mountain bikes in a park greatly increases the damage to the trails, damage from "bootleg" (illegally created) trails, and the problems of conflicts between trail users, and hence the cost of maintaining the park. Considering how tight park budgets are, we can't afford the extra costs of policing, and repairing the damage from, mountain biking.

l.  For the science on mountain biking and its impacts on wildlife and people, see

m.  Mountain bikers ride so fast that they don't experience most of what they are passing, and quickly get bored with any given trail, and then want more and more trails to ride. If they can't get enough trails to ride legally, they ride illegally. Or they build new trails. If they can't get legal permission to build them, they build them illegally. They are insatiable! Mountain biker John Fisch: “I'm a classic short attention span kind of guy and would generally [rather] ride an average trail for the first time than a great trail for the second time”. See regarding the habitat destruction caused by trail-building. "Kyle Legge, who will go to Orange Coast College in the fall, enjoys carving through canyon trails.' You kind of forget about everything else,' he said. 'You’re just focusing on the trail and what’s in front of you.'" "'Mountain biking is different than [sic] road biking. It takes a lot of focus to be on the trial [sic],' 16-year-old Jacob Venenga said. 'Dr. Schindler taught me how to keep that focus. Focus on what is ahead, not what’s around.'" Trail building, of course, destroys wildlife habitat, not only underfoot, but also a wide swath on both sides of the trail, since the presence of humans prevents the animals from using the area (see and Here is IMBA bragging about all the trail building they do, which is actually nothing to be proud of!:

From: "IMBA" <>
Subject: Get incredible mountain biking, right near your place
Date: Thu, 14 Aug 2014 06:45:18 -0600

Heres the deal...

1. Mountain biking is awesome.

2. Building and maintaining trails is expensive.

3. If we wait for someone else to fund great riding, trails wont get built, and we wont ride.

Last year, IMBA's professional trailbuilders built 13 bike parks and 450 miles of new trails. Check the map to see what's happening near you.

And we helped volunteers build and maintain thousands more through grants and technical assistance.

This year, were ready to do it all again, but we need your support.

It's vital that you and every mountain biker pitches in.

Whether its $20, $50, $250please give what you can to the Trail Building Fund.

Donating is the most effective way to fund trails; the money is matched by other supporters and goes back out to enable local trail work across the U.S.

As a thank you, IMBA will send you a gift of your choicelike a limited-edition IMBA cap or a Tech T-shirtonly available when you donate now.

Build It. Ride It. Support It.

Thank you!

Michael Van Abel, Executive Director

P.S. Donations to IMBA are tax-deductible and earn 20 percent off anything at the IMBA store. Click here now for your discount code.

207 Canyon BLVD
Suite 301
Boulder, CO 80302-co
United States

IMBA 5/31/18: "Most hometown trails are built and cared for by local mountain bike groups in support of under-resourced land managers." In other words, habitat destruction is a big part of mountain bikers' mission! This shows exactly why mountain bikers should never be allowed to build trails! Where a hiker only needs a relatively straight trail from point A to point B, mountain bikers want extra twists and bumps to give them thrills, making the trail much longer than necessary and destroying far more habitat.


5. Mountain bikers claim that their sport has no greater environmental impact than hiking. Is that true?

a. If you read the "studies" that make that claim, you find that they don't really compare the impacts of hiking and mountain biking, but only the impacts per foot. If, for a moment, we assume that the studies are correct in their having equivalent impacts per foot, it would still follow that mountain biking has far greater impact per person, since mountain bikers typically travel so much farther than hikers. Besides overlooking distances travelled, those "studies" almost all ignore impacts on wildlife. And they don't study mountain biking under normal conditions -- only at a very slow speed. Actually, the comparison with hiking is irrelevant. It would only be relevant if we planned to allow only one of the two, and were considering which of the two is more harmful. In fact, no one is considering banning hiking. We are only considering adding mountain biking. Therefore, the only relevant question is, "Is mountain biking harmful"? (Of course, it is!) There is only one truly scientific study that I know of  that compares the impacts of hiking and mountain biking. It found that mountain biking has a greater impact on elk than hiking (Wisdom, M. J., H. K. Preisler, N. J. Cimon, B. K. Johnson. 2004. Effects of Off-Road Recreation on Mule Deer and Elk. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference 69, 2004, pp.531-550.) See

     b. On its web site, IMBA mentions recent research on mountain biking by Dave White et al and Jeff Marion, both of whom claim that mountain biking and hiking have "similar" impacts. Is that true? First, "similar" is not a scientific term and really has no clear meaning. That term is being used only to obfuscate. Second, these are survey studies, not experimental studies. By its very nature, a survey study cannot be used to compare the impacts from two activities, because it doesn't control all the variables. For example, we don't know if the differences in erosion between two trails are due to the mountain biking vs. hiking use, or due to differences in the weather, terrain, steepness, soil type, management practices, amount of use, hikers on the "mountain biking trail", mountain bikers on the "hiking trail", etc. White et al only measured their trails once, and didn't even collect any data on hiking impacts! See and

     c. Why would a researcher risk his/her reputation by doing such shoddy work? For money! And to ensure the continuance of their sport. If land managers think that mountain biking is more harmful than hiking, they will be more likely to close trails to bikes. Bike parts manufacturer Shimano paid Professor White to do his study. Research funds are difficult to obtain. A researcher who can be relied upon to produce research favorable to mountain biking will be able to obtain funding from the mountain biking industry. A researcher who tells the truth about mountain biking won't be able to obtain research funds and will risk stunting his/her career.


6. Where should mountain biking allowed? A couple of role models for wildlife protection are Yosemite National Park and East Bay Municipal Utility District (in Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California). They both restrict bicycles to paved roads, where they can't do much harm. Somehow bicyclists have managed to enjoy their sport for over a hundred years, without riding off-road.


7. What should the policy be on trails? Closed to bikes, unless marked open. Signs that say "No Bikes" are quickly and repeatedly ripped out of the ground by mountain bikers. Bikes should never be permitted on any unpaved trail.


8. Isn't it discriminatory to allow hikers and equestrians on trails, but not mountain bikers? Mountain bikers love to say this, apparently because they think it will gain them some sympathy. The truth is that mountain bikers have exactly the same access to trails that everyone else has! It is only their bikes that are banned. If mountain bikers were really being discriminated against, they could easily go to court to gain access. However … they already have access to every trail in the world!


9. Don't I have a right to mountain bike on all public lands? I am a taxpayer! The public has the right, through its elected representatives, to restrict how land is used. A federal court has already ruled that there is no right to mountain bike. It is a privilege, and any land manager who gives a good reason (such as safety or protecting the environment) can keep bikes off of trails (see They have the right to walk, but not the right to bring a bicycle with them.


10. Don't mountain bikers do some good things, like trail construction and trail maintenance? Trail construction destroys wildlife habitat both directly (by killing plants and animals) and indirectly (by reducing the size of the intervening "islands" of habitat). Moreover, mountain bikers favor trails that are "twisty" (sinuous), bumpy, and full of obstacles that provide thrills for mountain bikers. Such designs increase habitat destruction (by lengthening the trail) and make the trails less useful for hikers and equestrians. Trail maintenance sounds good, until you realize that it would hardly be necessary, if bikes weren't allowed there. The mountain bikers are the main reason why trail maintenance is necessary! Trails used only by hikers require hardly any maintenance. Therefore, admitting bicycles to a park greatly increases its cost of maintenance. Nothing is really "free", including trail construction and maintenance. (How does the saying go? "Beware of Trojans bearing gifts"?) Not many mountain bikers volunteer for trail maintenance: "We had 20 people, mostly NON-MOUNTAIN BIKERS, turn out for the IMBA Trail Care Crew this weekend at Newberry Heritage Park. ... Would have been nice to see other riders there helping out, but it's average for only 1-2% of mountain bikers (nationally) to donate time to building or maintenance." Mountain bikers claim that they perform a valuable service by maintaining trails. But if not properly trained and managed, they can easily cause millions of dollars in damage and death to wildlife and people: there are hidden costs associated with it down the road that will cost substantial money (e.g. erosion, fire). For example, two mountain bikers doing unauthorized "trail maintenance" started a fire that destroyed 80 homes!:


"Mother Nature was being her cantankerous old self and decided to drop a couple of mature Monterey pines next to one of our trails at Joaquin Miller Park in the Oakland hills. As such, we'll be restoring some of the trail that was damaged by the roots of the tree and doing some additional general maintenance."

This illustrates why bikes should not be allowed on trails. Hikers can step over tree roots; bikers always ride over them and damage them -- they are too lazy to dismount and step over them. There is no good reason to cut the roots away, just to please mountain bikers. Wildlife, including trees, should get top priority in parks, because wildlife is what makes a place a park! Mountain bikers should not be doing "trail maintenance". They obviously don't know how to do it properly.


10. But don't mountain bikers provide added safety, by being able to quickly summon help in the event of an emergency? I would rather trust in a cell phone, than a speeding mountain biker. Besides, natural areas are already one of the safest places you can be. In over 50 years of hiking and backpacking, I have never witnessed any situation requiring emergency aid. Most people go to natural areas partly for solitude. If we wanted to be around large, fast-moving pieces of machinery, we would stay in the city!


12. Can't mountain biking help get our overweight kids off the couch? Hiking can already do that, without causing extra harm to wildlife and people. Mountain biking downhill provides zero exercise benefit. Mountain biking on level ground provides minimal exercise benefit, much less than walking. Since it's impossible to pay any attention to your surroundings while mountain biking (or you will crash), there's no reason to promote mountain biking. It benefits only those who stand to make money off of it, such as bike manufacturers, retailers, and tour companies. Mountain biking is also inappropriate for young people because it's very expensive!


"Fri, Aug 10 2007:

Newsgroups: alt.mountain-bike

From: Ride-A-Lot <>

Date: Fri, 10 Aug 2007

Subject: Re: need suggestions on mountain bike, thanks a lot

Any bike you buy from a big box store (i.e. Target, Wal-Mart, Dicks, Sports Authority, etc.) is going to be JUNK.  If you ware going to do any actual mountain biking, you will very very disappointed with the performance. For a new mountain bike, the low-end entry level bike Specialized Rockhopper is one) will cost around $500."


(Mountain bikes are built tough because street bikes can't take the pounding that they would get on trails. They would fall apart.)


13. But isn't mountain biking healthful exercise? No! Mountain biking is inherently dangerous, and cannot be made safe. Hiking trails are not designed for bicycling. They are unpredictable. There is a reason why departments of transportation have standards for bicycle trails that require a smooth surface, not too steep a grade, a no-skid surface, a minimum width, a long sight distance (no blind turns), etc. Mountain bikers regularly fall off their bikes, resulting in paraplegia, quadriplegia, or even death. This obviously cancels out any possible health benefit. See and In 2010, a 12-year-old girl died during her very first mountain biking lesson!: Bicycling also reduces bone density:,0,1785648.story. A bicycle is an energy-saving device. In fact, according to a "Scientific American" article, it is the most energy-efficient of all forms of transportation. For healthful exercise, nothing can beat walking.


Mountain bikers are a danger to themselves:
Norco Factory Team Mechanic Lewis Kirkwood Thinks Mountain Biking Could be Giving us Bad Vibrations


Mountain bikers are a danger to others:


"Mountain biking is a beautiful thing. It's also an inherently dangerous activity, but it rewards you in proportion to the risks you take. Point down the hill and you go fast. Let off the brakes and you go faster. The less you brake in turns, the more speed you carry out. Want to catch some air? You'll have to leave the ground first. Risk is as essential to the sport as wheels or handlebars. If you don't want to skin your knee, get lost, get hypothermia or bonk from time to time, you never want to risk wearing a cast for a few weeks, and you want your trails smoothly groomed, straight with good sight lines, well-marked and not too fast or pointed downhill, maybe you should take up jogging or spin class instead of mountain biking." i


It doesn't take much practice or forethought to realize that mountain biking is inherently dangerous. We don't trust young people with drugs, alcohol, motor vehicles, or guns. Why should we trust them with mountain bikes, which are at least as dangerous?????


One more reason not to mountain bike: mountain bikers ride so fast and quietly that they will startle a mountain lion or grizzly, causing them to instinctively attack!:


14. Won't a helmet protect me from serious injury? Don't bet on it!:

Man injured in Brown County mountain biking accident

Staff Reports
First Posted: May 21, 2012 - 11:19 am
1:17 p.m. update

Alan Keeling, 48, of Crestwood, Ky., is in good condition today at IU Health Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis.

NASHVILLE, Ind. A Kentucky man was critically injured in a mountain biking accident at Brown County State Park.

Alan Keeling, 48, of Crestwood, Ky., was slammed face first into a fallen log after he was thrown from his mountain bike at about 4 p.m. Sunday while riding the trails at the state park, according to Indiana conservation officers.

Keeling was wearing a helmet, but he struck the log lower on his head. He suffered face and skull fractures and was flown to IU Health Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis for treatment.

Indiana Conservation Officer Brent Bohbrink investigated the accident. Nashville Volunteer Fire Department, Columbus Regional Hospital EMS and state park personnel assisted at the scene.


14. Doesn't mountain biking get people out of their cars? So do walking, road cycling, and transit use, without harm to the natural environment. Since very few mountain biking opportunities are within easy bicycling distance, the vast majority of mountain bike trips require transporting the bike in a truck, SUV, or car. If mountain bikers cared about the environment, they would bicycle to the park, lock their bike at the trailhead, and hike. Or simply bicycle on paved roads, as bicyclists have for the past century.


16. Doesn't the threat from mountain biking pale, in comparison to other sources of environmental damage, such as logging? Maybe, and maybe not. Mountain biking teaches people that the rough treatment of nature is acceptable, so it may lead to many other abuses. In parks, where most mountain biking is done, it is probably the most harmful activity allowed. But even if mountain biking is less damaging than another activity, such as logging, it is still additional damage. If an area is already messed up (e.g. by logging), how does that make it okay to do additional damage? It doesn't! The phrase that comes to mind is "death by a thousand cuts". Mountain bikers don't usually kill people (except themselves!), but their trail-building and riding destroy habitat bit by bit. Locally, it seems insignificant, but when considered as a whole, it is very significant.


17. What's wrong with night riding? Humans have been destroying wildlife habitat for centuries, so that very little remains. Our presence in parks prevents wildlife from using a large part of their habitat, at least during the daytime. Now that night riding is becoming popular, wildlife and being denied that habitat even at night, or incur an increased risk getting run over, if they attempt to use it. There is very little law enforcement even during the day in these days of tight budgets. There is no patrolling of parks at night! This gives mountain bikers free rein to do whatever they want, including riding trails that are closed to bikes or even building their own illegal trails. No wonder night riding is so popular! And, of course, night riding makes an activity that is already very dangerous, much more dangerous.


18. Don't the vast majority of mountain bikers ride responsibly? Actually, just the opposite is true. In a scientific study that IMBA had on their website for a while, then quietly removed, 83.1% of mountain bikers broke the law (see


19. Aren't the problems with mountain biking just caused by "a few bad apples"? There aren't just a few! There are enough to put some in just about every park in the world. The same problems appear everywhere: riding off-trail, riding where prohibited, illegal trail construction, excessive speed, accelerating erosion, killing plants and animals on and next to the trail, driving other trail users off the trails, etc.


20. Isn't mountain biking good for the economy? Nearly all mountain bicycles are made by foreign companies.  The profit from bicycle sales goes abroad!  The small shops and bike mechanics find it hard to make a living. So, IMBA isn't supporting much USA business; IMBA is supporting foreign companies and their renegade sport. Mountain biking destroys wildlife habitat and drives non-mountain bikers off of the trails, so there is a net loss in recreation. This can't be good for the economy. As David Brower used to say, "There's no economy on a dead planet". IMBA promotes the idea that support for mountain biking will boost the local economy, if visiting mountain bikers patronize local businesses. But they ignore the negative side of the ledger. Search and rescue costs a lot of money! And deaths and injuries, e.g. paralysis, greatly harm those mountain bikers and their families.


21. Why is mountain biking so addicting? It seems that once someone starts mountain biking, they feel a need to do it as often as possible – at least weekly. And they become impervious to information about the harm that mountain biking does. (That's why it is extremely unfortunate when land managers or their staff start mountain biking.) Apparently, some people have an especially strong desire or "need" for danger and thrills, and it seems to be accompanied by an unusually low concern for the welfare of wildlife, the environment, non-bikers, or anything else that gets in the way of their thrill-seeking. A phenomenon that may be related is the existence of psychopaths -- people who seem to be genetically devoid of moral feeling. See Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us, by the brilliant scientist Dr. Robert Hare. I highly recommend his book. As far as I know, in Hare's terminology, mountain bikers are sociopaths, not psychopaths.


22. Aren't mountain bikers just hikers with wheels, and don't they care about protecting the land as much as conservationists? I am going to quote a friend, who said it much better than I ever could: "What comes across very strongly to me is that this is like the Biblical fable of Solomon trying to decide which woman is the real mother to a baby. Sick of their bickering, he threatens to cut the baby in half and give half to each. The true mother cries out in objection, saying she would rather he gave the baby to the other woman than see it killed. That's how Solomon knew who the real mother was. What does this have to do with mountain bikers and the wilderness? It seems to me that the mountain bikers commenting in this thread really don't care about the land unless they can use it. They would just as soon the land not be protected as 'wilderness' at all, than be declared off-limits to them. If they really cared about the wilderness, they would say, please preserve the land, even if we cannot use it. And in fact, as Mike correctly states, the land would still [be] open to their use. Just without the bicycle."

"Behan, Richards, and Lee (2001) found that pedestrians valued spiritual benefits more than mountain bikers did, as it was easier for non-mechanized travelers to focus on nature." Behan, J.R., M.T. Richards, and M.E. Lee. 2001. Effects of tour jeeps in a wildland setting on non-motorized recreationist benefits. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 19:2,119. See


23. How can I see first-hand the harm that mountain biking does? Easy! Just watch their own videos:


24. IMBA has rules designed to minimize the impacts of mountain biking, such as not riding under wet conditions. Don't they protect the parks from damage?


IMBA's "rules" are just for show, and are universally ignored. So much for IMBA's rule about not riding under wet conditions! They could stick to pavement, but they are too selfish to do so:


"Date: Sat, 23 Jan 2010 21:15:01 -0800

From: Ross Finlayson <>

Subject: Your favorite 'midst of the wet season' rides?


At this time of the year (especially during an 'El Nino' winter like this one), we often find ourselves wanting to ride just a couple of days after a major rainy spell.  Most of the trails are too muddy to ride, but there are a few trails (mostly fireroads) that hold up OK even after heavy rain.


In the past, my favorite 'midst of the wet season' ride was the main (Aptos Creek) fireroad in Nisene Marks - from Aptos up to Sand Point overlook and back.  But even that fireroad often gets very wet.


My new favorite 'midst of the wet season' ride - which I did again today - is at Butano State Park: Up the Butano Fireroad, past the abandoned airstrip, then down Olmo Fireroad, and back along the paved road.  This is a 12-mile loop with 2000' of total climbing , and holds up well (especially the Butano Fireroad) even after a long period of heavy rain, such as we had this past week.


So lets hear your favorite 'midst of the wet season' rides?



25. Aren't most mountain bikers responsible? Mountain biking organizations always say that they oppose illegal trail-building and illegal mountain biking. Those statements are just empty words. They are always followed by excuses that exonerate the outlaws. For example, when three people were arrested for building an illegal trail in Marin County across four different jurisdictions, IMBA said that it was caused by a lack of sufficient singletrack opportunities! Is it any wonder that these activities never stop?! Here is just one of the many examples on the following website: "As much as I disrespect vigilante trail building, sometimes its [sic] the swift kick in the butt needed to get the powers that be to recognize a problem. I know many will disagree, but you should check out the Freedom Riders movie and see how that turned out." Mountain bikers have never lifted a finger to actually stop illegal trail-building or illegal mountain biking. IMBA co-founder Michael Kelley once asked me where the illegal mountain biking is going on, and promised to do something about it. He has never shown up.


Danielle Baker:


"At some point in every emerging mountain bike community, illegal trails are necessary to grow the sport. It's easier to beg forgiveness than ask permission, and it is impossible to prove to a political body that mountain biking is a viable community sport if you don't already have somewhere to ride. The secrecy is necessitated by the use of land we don't own. And at some point that secrecy creates a divide between those who know and those who don't. Location knowledge of these trails gives you the popularity advantage of the first girl to develop in high school."

"Sam Evans-Brown: If you’ve ever been walking and turned onto a trail that suddenly is zig-zagging, maze-like through the woods, winding crazily through the trees and doubling back on itself… that’s a mountain bike trail. They’re super frustrating to walk on, because they take forever to get anywhere. Mountain bikers don’t want views or point-to-point trails, they want corners, and obstacles to get over, and downhills and to ride their bikes until they’re tired and wind up back where they started.

And they want it close to home… which means often these trails were built in whatever woods were nearest by… no matter whose they were. "


26. Can't horses be taught to tolerate the presence of bikes on the trail, so that mountain bikers can safely share trails with equestrians? No: "The other advantage for an equestrian, sometimes, is that if the horse is trying to avoid an obstacle/collision, the rider may be already out of the way of impact due to the horse's reflexes in avoiding the obstacle. Horses have reflexes 10 times faster than humans, so I'm told. So the injured rider usually has injuries not due to collision with the biker but instead with trees, rocks, falling, or other trail issues. Falling on her back and hitting her head are the main culprits for women riders. I now ride with a helmet to protect at least one part of me. Hopefully I will not land on my back if I go off; and if I have a choice, I'll try to roll. Another helpful piece, try to ride a horse that has some sense and some training rather than a green one or a colt, if possible. No matter how well trained, however, that is not a guarantee that the rider will be safe in an emergency." "The other problem with horse reflexes is that should they wheel and try to gallop out of danger, often the rider is already thrown half out of the saddle and is off balance due to the spin. Then the rider can hit the ground with great force, or worse yet, hit their head on a rock. Also, a panicked, otherwise completely sensible horse can back you off a cliff, fall with you and roll over on you, saddle, horse and all. I have very well trained, level headed horses that can meet many challenges that would frighten another horse. I am a very experienced rider who was riding with a friend who is a horse trainer. Both horses were frightened by the sudden, silent appearance of some speeding bikes. One horse spun so hard that my trainer friend was laid out flat on his neck, but didn't come off. My horse, a nearly bomb proof mare, freaked out and started backing up toward a cliff. I got her stopped just as her hind legs went off the edge of the cliff. I've had this mare for 14 years, she's never tried to back off a cliff before. Another variation is that once off balance on a spinning horse, the horse remains on the cliff, but the rider is thrown over the side, rolling and bouncing all the way to the bottom. … You can get a horse trail ready, but you can NEVER train the flight response out of a horse." "I and 2 other gals were all injured in an accident precipitated by a mountain biker who was wearing ear buds, and bombing down a narrow mountain trail. MB Websites have posts & pictures from mountain bikers bragging about AVERAGING 20 mph on that same trail. The mountain biker hit the first horse and they all spun and ran. We all had concussions, one gal suffered a compression fracture of her spine, the second such injury in ONE WEEK, due to an equestrian mountain bike accident. I was wearing a helmet and still got a concussion and back injuries. My horse suffered abrasions down to her tendon sheath on her hind fetlocks. If her injuries had gotten infected, that would have been it for her. The 2 gals I was riding with had been riding all their lives and one is a breeder and trainer. I was the rookie having been riding and owning horses for only 20 yrs. All the horses were well accustomed to bikes on the trail. You can't train them to be non reactive zombies when their life is threatened and a biker never stops."


27. Won't permitting mountain biking eliminate illegal mountain biking and trail building? No! In spite of permission to mountain bike, that is never good enough for mountain bikers! They still ride illegally and build illegal trails! Of course, they always claim that getting access will eliminate the illegal use, but it's not true!:

From: Michele Lamelin <>
Date: Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:38:52 -0800
Subject: [morca] FLOW TRAIL ANNOUNCEMENT FROM MBoSC: Stewards of Soquel Forest 12/6 work day recap; Adventure Sports Journal 12/20 work day registration open
To: "Monterey Off-Road Cycling Association (MORCA)" <>
List-Subscribe: <>

Volunteer trail workers pose with raffle prizes at the end of a productive work day. Photo by Drew Perkins.

Volunteer Trail Work Day Recap: 12/6, presented by the Stewards of Soquel Forest

A dedicated 37 volunteers showed up at Soquel Demonstration State Forest (SDSF) on a rainy morning this past Saturday for the first trail work day of the 2014/15 season.

California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE) SDSF Forest Manager Angela Bernheisel kicked off the day by addressing the crew. After applauding their volunteer effort, Angela asked for their support and that of the mountain biking community at large to help manage the growing issue of unauthorized trail use and trail building on SDSF and neighboring private landowner property, pointing out that such activity jeopardizes the future of mountain biking at SDSF.

Fueled with coffee and breakfast treats courtesy Whole Foods, crews then headed into the forest to perform much needed drainage maintenance on Braille and Sawpit, cleaning out old drains and adding new ones where needed. This maintenance work will help the trails weather the significant storm event forecast for Thursday this week. The rain relented and glimpses of blue sky were seen by lunchtime. A gourmet lunch was provided by the Stewards of Soquel Forest and Summit Store.

After a long but productive day of work, volunteers enjoyed post-work refreshments, also provided by the Stewards, and a fun raffle featuring product from Bell, Epicenter Cycling, and Santa Cruz Coffee Roasting Company.

Former CAL FIRE SDSF Forest Manager Thomas Suftin, who pitched in with a volunteer crew, expressed how impressed he was with the event’s organization. Other feedback echoed this sentiment from long-time volunteer Ben Harold, who also worked on the Emma McCary Trail: “I love volunteering for MBoSC eventsI get a lot more out of them than I put in.”

Huge thanks to each and every volunteer for the hard work, and to the Stewards of Soquel Forest, Whole Foods and Summit Store for the hospitality!

A trail crew heads to their work site in the mist. Photo by Bruce Dorman.

Volunteer crew leader Bruce Dorman takes care of a drainage problem. Photo by Julie Kanagy.

Volunteers were also rewarded with an amazing sunset view over Soquel Creek and SDSF courtesy Mother Nature. Photo by Bruce Dorman.

Next Volunteer Trail Work Day: 12/20, presented by Adventure Sports Journal

Volunteer Work Day #2 is scheduled for Saturday, December 20, with Adventure Sports Journal generously providing the days’ hospitality. We expect to resume work on the flow trail that day and would love another big turnout of help.

Volunteer involvement is crucial to completing the flow trail, and work days are scheduled for twice a month. Check out the schedule and mark your calendar! All are welcome at our workdaysno trail work experience required. Bear in mind that work days are weather dependent. Windy and wet weather may produce hazardous conditions, or limit workday productivity.

Registration for volunteer trail work days is REQUIRED. Sign up for the December 20 event HERE.

The SDSF flow trail was featured as the Adventure Sports Journal cover story in their April/May 2014 issue. The article was written by SDSF flow trail builder Matt De Young with photography by MBoSC volunteer Bogdan Marian.

Other ways you can help:

JOIN OUR WEEKDAY DIG CREW: We will also hold informal work days during the week Tuesday through Friday, weather permitting. Contact us for further details if you can join us.

ASSIST WITH OTHER TASKS: If you want to help out, but aren’t keen on digging, there are still lots of ways you can help out without breaking a sweat; check out our Help Wanted page for ways you can get involved.

SPONSOR A VOLUNTEER TRAIL WORK DAY: Promote your business while supporting a community driven project by pitching in to help MBoSC put on an A+ Volunteer Trail Work Day. Your sponsorship donation will provide hospitality for volunteers as well as cover MBoSC’s costs to plan and organize the event. Learn more here.

DONATE EQUIPMENT/RAFFLE ITEMS/CASH:. We need to raise another $140,000 in order to complete the flow trail. We also could use raffle items to reward our volunteers with, and certain equipment useful for trail building. Details here.

TAKE OUR SURVEY: Have you ridden the flow  yet? We want to know what you think. Your feedback will help us evaluate our work so far and plan the remaining segments. Chime in here.

Volunteers enjoy coffee and breakfast treats as they sign waivers and get organized for the day. Photo by Mark Davidson.

28. Overview of common mountain bike injuries:


29. Isn't mountain biking good for kids, since it gets them off the couch? Mountain bikers would like you to believe that mountain biking is the only thing that will get kids off the couch (there are many less harmful physical activities that will do that, including hiking and street bicycling), and that mountain bike racing is environmentally benign (the rest of this FAQ proves it isn't) and is beneficial for the kids (at least the ones that aren't seriously injured or killed!). The psychology of racing (e.g. Peak Mental Performance Coaching: is all about ignoring everything and everyone in the world, so that you can win a race. I have never had any interest in racing, so I can't say whether it works, but it does seem to embody everything that is bad about mountain biking: ignoring erosion, the killing of animals and plants, the terrorizing of other trail users, and the endangerment of mountain bikers and others. This is why it is so important to "nip it in the bud" - in grade school and high school, where the racing addiction is fostered - by people who care more about spreading their sport than they do about the welfare of children.


30. Mountain bikers say they ride off-road because it's safer than riding on the road. Is that true? No: "In some Canadian provinces, mountain biking is a popular sport that involves riding on steep slopes, through densely wooded trails, and jumping obstacles and cliffs. It involves considerably higher injury risk than transport cycling" ( In addition, road- and off-road biking have different goals: off-road biking doesn't generally provide transportation from one point to another, so it can't substitute for transportation cycling.


The State of California considers mountain biking a "hazardous recreational activity": "'hazardous recreational activity' means a recreational activity conducted on property of a public entity that creates a substantial, as distinguished from a minor, trivial, or insignificant, risk of injury to a participant or a spectator." Notice that bicycling or driving on pavement is not considered a "hazardous recreational activity".


31. Isn't mountain biking safe if you learn the proper techniques? No! So-called "expert" mountain bikers have horrendous accidents all the time. Mountain bikers seem to enjoy the thrill of danger, and seek it out. That leads to accidents. But no matter how "safely" you ride, the inherent randomness and unpredictability of nature ensures that there will always be accidents.


32. Isn't it good to get more people on bikes, and thereby clean up the air? It's good to get people out of their cars and riding bikes instead. But mountain biking doesn't do that – it is done for recreation, not transportation, and doesn't replace motor vehicle trips. In fact, most mountain bikers drive to the trailhead, since very few mountain biking trails are within bicycling distance of their homes. And mountain biking dirties the air: today I met a woman who told me that a mountain biker (on a trail closed to bikes) skidded past her at high speed and filled the air – and her lungs – with dust!


34. Pilot projects: Mountain bikers and land managers that support mountain biking love "pilot projects". "Let's try allowing bikes on trails and see how it goes." "Let's allow bikes on that singletrack trail and see how it goes." Those "pilot projects" never get revisited. They last forever, regardless of how they go.


34. Are there any good reasons to allow bicycles on trails? No. I can't think of one, and in the 25 years I have studied mountain biking, no one else has been able to come up with one.


35. One more reason to oppose mountain biking: fire danger and over-consumption of resources:

From: Brian Horejsi
Sent: Thursday, March 29, 2018 2:57 PM
Subject: Hot Mtn Bike Brake Starts Forest Fire


At 03:19 PM 3/29/2018, [a friend] wrote:


"I've also heard that e-MTB batteries could catch on fire.... (February 2018)"

Hmmm. I've never found a need for brakes or large batteries while hiking.... ;) There's one more reason to oppose mountain biking: over-consumption of resources!

36. "No future for egoists -- that's what their brain says!" This explains why, for example, mountain bikers apparently don't care about how they impact other trail users or wildlife! They are able to turn a 60-year-old woman into a paraplegic and refuse to take any responsibility for it. And they think that destroying wildlife habitat by building endless new trails is doing a "service"! This is exactly what I've been saying for the past 25 years! Finally, we have a good explanation!

37. One more reason to ban mountain biking: the enormous cost of rescuing someone from the wilds, often with helicopters or all-terrain vehicles, and medical personnel.


38. The bottom line: bicycles should be restricted to pavement or roads that are open to motor vehicles. There is no good reason to allow bicycles or other vehicles on dirt trails or in natural areas. Mountain biking is pointless – like mountain biking in the Sistine Chapel or the Louvre.


39. Aren’t mountain bikers who break the law part of the civil disobedience tradition of Gandhi and the Freedom Riders? No, they abuse the concept of civil disobedience, dropping the "civil" part. Gandhi openly and publicly broke the law and submitted to arrest. Mountain bikers break the law secretly and surreptitiously and try to avoid arrest. They are simply being selfish and anti-social. Instead of criticizing mountain bikers who break the law, they excuse their law-breaking by claiming that (1) mountain bikers are discriminated against and (2) there aren’t "enough" places to mountain bike legally. But, of course, there is no "right" to mountain bike, and protecting wildlife and the environment is a perfectly good reason to ban mountain biking.


40. Aren’t the V-shaped ruts seen on mountain biking trails caused by rain, not mountain bike tires? The mountain bikers always claim that bikes don't cause those V-shaped ruts, that they are caused by rain. Here we have a perfect natural experiment: the (mostly – a few mountain bikers ride it illegally) bike-free section of the (San Francisco Bay Area) Ridge Trail south of Tilden Park has no such ruts, whereas the "multi-use" section adjacent to it (north of Sibley Park) does. Same terrain, same geology, same rainfall. The only difference is the much larger number of bikes on the multi-use section.


41. "Mountain biking builds character", right? Wrong!:

Mountain-biker from Abington sentenced on three bank holdups:

Rape claims against French Alps shooting victim:

41. What are the impacts on wildlife of mountain bikers with dogs?:


43. A rarely-mentioned part of the mountain bikers’ dossier is corruption. It has recently come to light that officials in Olympia, Washington ( and Santa Clara County, California ( have broken transparency laws by holding secret meetings with mountain bikers to plan mountain bike parks, so that other citizens don’t have an opportunity to object.


44. Mountain bikers claim that it is a lot of fun and never boring. Is that true? Not at all! They are forever looking for new trails to ride, and building new trails (legally or illegally). This proves that mountain biking is boring and unsatisfying, in spite of their claims! If it were satisfying, they would never need new trails. I have been hiking the same trails weekly for 36 years, and they never get boring! Wild nature is endlessly interesting, and no two days are ever the same! But mountain bikers don’t look at anything but the trail in front of their front tire (so they won’t crash). What could be more boring than that?


45. What is the point of mountain biking? Mountain biking through the wilderness is like bicycling through an art museum. How much are you going to see? Is that a good way to learn about art?


46. What are mountain bikers seeking? Mountain bikers like "singletrack" (narrow) trails that are difficult enough to ride (e.g. full of rock- and root hazards) that they allow them to show off their riding skills and boost their ego. (Of course, every rider is different, so some people infuriate the more skilled riders by changing the trail to make it easier to ride.) Of course, these trails are totally inappropriate for hikers, who simply want trails that are easy to walk on, so they can enjoy the “main attraction”, which is untouched, wild nature. This is why mountain bikers should never be allowed to build trails.


47. Doesn’t recreation lead to more conservation? This is a common myth used to justify endless increases in recreation. Actually, recreation only leads to more recreation. In the 30 years that I've been observing mountain biking, the only thing that mountain bikers have ever advocated is access for their bikes. Not a bit of environmental- or wildlife protection ethic has ever rubbed off onto them. What does lead to conservation is science, specifically conservation biology. E.g. E.O. Wilson, arguably the most famous modern conservationist, started the Half Earth (for the wildlife) and 30x30 projects.


48. Doesn’t mountain biking provide some benefits for riders, such as reducing obesity? All of those benefits can be had by hiking, while minimizing the impact on wildlife and the environment, as well as the danger of accidents and injuries. Duh!


49. What are Native Americans teaching us about how nature should be treated? Hike, don’t mountain bike! It's common sense: respect the wildlife whose home it is: be quiet, move slowly, minimize harm, minimize disturbance of the wildlife - it's their only home! See


50. What’s good about bike parks and pump tracks? Nothing! They teach “skills” (jumping, skidding, etc.) that are inappropriate everywhere else, and yet the bikers are guaranteed to perform them in all of our parks. If someone wants to learn how to ride a bike, they can do so on the street, as we’ve all done since the bicycle was invented. Creating a bike park takes land that should be reserved for more important uses, such as wildlife habitat or parks for everyone – not just mountain bikers.


51. The Evolution of Laziness: “First, they got a bike to reduce walking. Then, they got multiple gears to reduce effort. Then, they got electric drive assist in going up steep hills. Then, they got more powerful motors to go faster up and down hills to cause deeper damages to nature. Due to all the injuries, the next evolutionary step will be a well-padded shell maybe with air bags. To improve hill climbing, the wheels will have retractable spikes.

Karl Young
Olympia, WA”


Note: I was the Chair of the Wildlife Committee of the Sierra Club's San Francisco Bay Area Chapter for a decade. During the same period, I studied conservation biology and the environmental impacts of mountain biking, which are summarized in my paper "The Impacts of Mountain Biking on Wildlife and People -- A Review of the Literature":